Hacking Multifactor Authentication. (電子ファイル, 2020) [WorldCat.org]
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Hacking Multifactor Authentication.

著者: Roger A Grimes
出版社: Newark John Wiley et Sons, Incorporated 2020
エディション/フォーマット:   電子ファイル : English
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その他のフォーマット: Erscheint auch als:
Druck-Ausgabe
ドキュメントの種類 電子ファイル
すべての著者/寄与者: Roger A Grimes
ISBN: 9781119672340 1119672341
OCLC No.: 1224007753
メモ: Cover -- Title Page -- Copyright Page -- About the Author -- Acknowledgments -- Contents at a Glance -- Contents -- Introduction -- Who This Book Is For -- What Is Covered in This Book? -- MFA Is Good -- How to Contact Wiley or the Author -- Part I Introduction -- Chapter 1 Logon Problems -- It's Bad Out There -- The Problem with Passwords -- Password Basics -- Identity -- The Password -- Password Registration -- Password Complexity -- Password Storage -- Password Authentication -- Password Policies -- Passwords Will Be with Us for a While -- Password Problems and Attacks -- Password Guessing -- Password Hash Cracking -- Password Stealing -- Passwords in Plain View -- Just Ask for It -- Password Hacking Defenses -- MFA Riding to the Rescue? -- Summary -- Chapter 2 Authentication Basics -- Authentication Life Cycle -- Identity -- Authentication -- Authorization -- Accounting/Auditing -- Standards -- Laws of Identity -- Authentication Problems in the Real World -- Summary -- Chapter 3 Types of Authentication -- Personal Recognition -- Knowledge-Based Authentication -- Passwords -- PINS -- Solving Puzzles -- Password Managers -- Single Sign-Ons and Proxies -- Cryptography -- Encryption -- Public Key Infrastructure -- Hashing -- Hardware Tokens -- One-Time Password Devices -- Physical Connection Devices -- Wireless -- Phone-Based -- Voice Authentication -- Phone Apps -- SMS -- Biometrics -- FIDO -- Federated Identities and APIs -- OAuth -- APIs -- Contextual/Adaptive -- Less Popular Methods -- Voiceover Radio -- Paper-Based -- Summary -- Chapter 4 Usability vs. Security -- What Does Usability Mean? -- We Don't Really Want the Best Security -- Security Isn't Usually Binary -- Too Secure -- Seven-Factor MFA -- Moving ATM Keypad Numbers -- Not as Worried as You Think About Hacking -- Unhackable Fallacy -- Unbreakable Oracle -- DJB.
Unhackable Quantum Cryptography -- We Are Reactive Sheep -- Security Theater -- Security by Obscurity -- MFA Will Cause Slowdowns -- MFA Will Cause Downtime -- No MFA Solution Works Everywhere -- Summary -- Part II Hacking MFA -- Chapter 5 Hacking MFA in General -- MFA Dependency Components -- Enrollment -- User -- Devices/Hardware -- Software -- API -- Authentication Factors -- Authentication Secrets Store -- Cryptography -- Technology -- Transmission/Network Channel -- Namespace -- Supporting Infrastructure -- Relying Party -- Federation/Proxies -- Alternate Authentication Methods/Recovery -- Migrations -- Deprovision -- MFA Component Conclusion -- Main Hacking Methods -- Technical Attacks -- Human Element -- Physical -- Two or More Hacking Methods Used -- "You Didn't Hack the MFA!" -- How MFA Vulnerabilities Are Found -- Threat Modeling -- Code Review -- Fuzz Testing -- Penetration Testing -- Vulnerability Scanning -- Human Testing -- Accidents -- Summary -- Chapter 6 Access Control Token Tricks -- Access Token Basics -- Access Control Token General Hacks -- Token Reproduction/Guessing -- Token Theft -- Reproducing Token Hack Examples -- Network Session Hijacking Techniques and Examples -- Firesheep -- MitM Attacks -- Access Control Token Attack Defenses -- Generate Random, Unguessable Session IDs -- Use Industry-Accepted Cryptography and Key Sizes -- Developers Should Follow Secure Coding Practices -- Use Secure Transmission Channels -- Include Timeout Protections -- Tie the Token to Specific Devices or Sites -- Summary -- Chapter 7 Endpoint Attacks -- Endpoint Attack Risks -- General Endpoint Attacks -- Programming Attacks -- Physical Access Attacks -- What Can an Endpoint Attacker Do? -- Specific Endpoint Attack Examples -- Bancos Trojans -- Transaction Attacks -- Mobile Attacks -- Compromised MFA Keys -- Endpoint Attack Defenses.
MFA Developer Defenses -- End-User Defenses -- Summary -- Chapter 8 SMS Attacks -- Introduction to SMS -- SS7 -- Biggest SMS Weaknesses -- Example SMS Attacks -- SIM Swap Attacks -- SMS Impersonation -- SMS Buffer Overflow -- Cell Phone User Account Hijacking -- Attacks Against the Underlying Supporting Infrastructure -- Other SMS-Based Attacks -- SIM/SMS Attack Method Summary -- NIST Digital Identity Guidelines Warning -- Defenses to SMS-Based MFA Attacks -- Developer Defenses -- User Defenses -- Is RCS Here to Save Mobile Messaging? -- Is SMS-Based MFA Still Better than Passwords? -- Summary -- Chapter 9 One-Time Password Attacks -- Introduction to OTP -- Seed Value-Based OTPs -- HMAC-Based OTP -- Event-Based OTP -- TOTP -- Example OTP Attacks -- Phishing OTP Codes -- Poor OTP Creation -- OTP Theft, Re-Creation, and Reuse -- Stolen Seed Database -- Defenses to OTP Attacks -- Developer Defenses -- Use Reliable and Trusted and Tested OTP Algorithms -- OTP Setup Code Must Expire -- OTP Result Code Must Expire -- Prevent OTP Replay -- Make Sure Your RNG Is NIST-Certified or Quantum -- Increase Security by Requiring Additional Entry Beyond OTP Code -- Stop Brute-Forcing Attacks -- Secure Seed Value Database -- User Defenses -- Summary -- Chapter 10 Subject Hijack Attacks -- Introduction -- Example Attacks -- Active Directory and Smartcards -- Simulated Demo Environment -- Subject Hijack Demo Attack -- The Broader Issue -- Dynamic Access Control Example -- ADFS MFA Bypass -- Defenses to Component Attacks -- Threat Model Dependency Abuse Scenarios -- Secure Critical Dependencies -- Educate About Dependency Abuses -- Prevent One to Many Mappings -- Monitor Critical Dependencies -- Summary -- Chapter 11 Fake Authentication Attacks -- Learning About Fake Authentication Through UAC -- Example Fake Authentication Attacks -- Look-Alike Websites.
Fake Office 365 Logons -- Using an MFA-Incompatible Service or Protocol -- Defenses to Fake Authentication Attacks -- Developer Defenses -- User Defenses -- Summary -- Chapter 12 Social Engineering Attacks -- Introduction -- Social Engineering Commonalities -- Unauthenticated Communication -- Nonphysical -- Usually Involves Well-Known Brands -- Often Based on Notable Current Events and Interests -- Uses Stressors -- Advanced: Pretexting -- Third-Party Reliances -- Example Social Engineering Attacks on MFA -- Fake Bank Alert -- Crying Babies -- Hacking Building Access Cards -- Defenses to Social Engineering Attacks on MFA -- Developer Defenses to MFA -- User Defenses to Social Engineering Attacks -- Summary -- Chapter 13 Downgrade/Recovery Attacks -- Introduction -- Example Downgrade/Recovery Attacks -- Alternate Email Address Recovery -- Abusing Master Codes -- Guessing Personal-Knowledge Questions -- Defenses to Downgrade/Recovery Attacks -- Developer Defenses to Downgrade/Recovery Attacks -- User Defenses to Downgrade/Recovery Attacks -- Summary -- Chapter 14 Brute-Force Attacks -- Introduction -- Birthday Attack Method -- Brute-Force Attack Methods -- Example of Brute-Force Attacks -- OTP Bypass Brute-Force Test -- Instagram MFA Brute-Force -- Slack MFA Brute-Force Bypass -- UAA MFA Brute-Force Bug -- Grab Android MFA Brute-Force -- Unlimited Biometric Brute-Forcing -- Defenses Against Brute-Force Attacks -- Developer Defenses Against Brute-Force Attacks -- User Defenses Against Brute-Force Attacks -- Summary -- Chapter 15 Buggy Software -- Introduction -- Common Types of Vulnerabilities -- Vulnerability Outcomes -- Examples of Vulnerability Attacks -- Uber MFA Vulnerability -- Google Authenticator Vulnerability -- YubiKey Vulnerability -- Multiple RSA Vulnerabilities -- SafeNet Vulnerability -- Login.gov -- ROCA Vulnerability.
Defenses to Vulnerability Attacks -- Developer Defenses Against Vulnerability Attacks -- User Defenses Against Vulnerability Attacks -- Summary -- Chapter 16 Attacks Against Biometrics -- Introduction -- Biometrics -- Common Biometric Authentication Factors -- How Biometrics Work -- Problems with Biometric Authentication -- High False Error Rates -- Privacy Issues -- Disease Transmission -- Example Biometric Attacks -- Fingerprint Attacks -- Hand Vein Attack -- Eye Biometric Spoof Attacks -- Facial Recognition Attacks -- Defenses Against Biometric Attacks -- Developer Defenses Against Biometric Attacks -- User/Admin Defenses Against Biometric Attacks -- Summary -- Chapter 17 Physical Attacks -- Introduction -- Types of Physical Attacks -- Example Physical Attacks -- Smartcard Side-Channel Attack -- Electron Microscope Attack -- Cold-Boot Attacks -- Snooping On RFID-Enabled Credit Cards -- EMV Credit Card Tricks -- Defenses Against Physical Attacks -- Developer Defenses Against Physical Attacks -- User Defenses Against Physical Attacks -- Summary -- Chapter 18 DNS Hijacking -- Introduction -- DNS -- DNS Record Types -- Common DNS Hacks -- Example Namespace Hijacking Attacks -- DNS Hijacking Attacks -- MX Record Hijacks -- Dangling CDN Hijack -- Registrar Takeover -- DNS Character Set Tricks -- ASN.1 Tricks -- BGP Hijacks -- Defenses Against Namespace Hijacking Attacks -- Developer Defenses -- User Defenses -- Summary -- Chapter 19 API Abuses -- Introduction -- Common Authentication Standards and Protocols Involving APIs -- Other Common API Standards and Components -- Examples of API Abuse -- Compromised API Keys -- Bypassing PayPal 2FA Using an API -- AuthO MFA Bypass -- Authy API Format Injection -- Duo API As-Designed MFA Bypass -- Microsoft OAuth Attack -- Sign In with Apple MFA Bypass -- Token TOTP BLOB Future Attack -- Defenses Against API Abuses.
Developer Defenses Against API Abuses.
物理形態: 1 Online-Ressource (579 Seiten)
コンテンツ: Introduction xxv Who This Book is For xxvii What is Covered in This Book? xxvii MFA is Good xxx How to Contact Wiley or the Author xxxi Part I Introduction 1 1 Logon Problems 3 It's Bad Out There 3 The Problem with Passwords 5 Password Basics 9 Identity 9 The Password 10 Password Registration 11 Password Complexity 11 Password Storage 12 Password Authentication 13 Password Policies 15 Passwords Will Be with Us for a While 18 Password Problems and Attacks 18 Password Guessing 19 Password Hash Cracking 23 Password Stealing 27 Passwords in Plain View 28 Just Ask for It 29 Password Hacking Defenses 30 MFA Riding to the Rescue? 31 Summary 32 2 Authentication Basics 33 Authentication Life Cycle 34 Identity 35 Authentication 46 Authorization 54 Accounting/Auditing 54 Standards 56 Laws of Identity 56 Authentication Problems in the Real World 57 Summary 58 3 Types of Authentication 59 Personal Recognition 59 Knowledge-Based Authentication 60 Passwords 60 PINS 62 Solving Puzzles 64 Password Managers 69 Single Sign-Ons and Proxies 71 Cryptography 72 Encryption 73 Public Key Infrastructure 76 Hashing 79 Hardware Tokens 81 One-Time Password Devices 81 Physical Connection Devices 83 Wireless 87 Phone-Based 89 Voice Authentication 89 Phone Apps 89 SMS 92 Biometrics 92 FIDO 93 Federated Identities and APIs 94 OAuth 94 APIs 96 Contextual/Adaptive 96 Less Popular Methods 97 Voiceover Radio 97 Paper-Based 98 Summary 99 4 Usability vs Security 101 What Does Usability Mean? 101 We Don't Really Want the Best Security 103 Security Isn't Usually Binary 105 Too Secure 106 Seven-Factor MFA 106 Moving ATM Keypad Numbers 108 Not as Worried as You Think About Hacking 109 Unhackable Fallacy 110 Unbreakable Oracle 113 DJB 113 Unhackable Quantum Cryptography 114 We are Reactive Sheep 115 Security Theater r 116 Security by Obscurity 117 MFA Will Cause Slowdowns 117 MFA Will Cause Downtime 118 No MFA Solution Works Everywhere 118 Summary 119 Part II Hacking MFA 121 5 Hacking MFA in General 123 MFA Dependency Components 124 Enrollment 125 User 127 Devices/Hardware 127 Software 128 API 129 Authentication Factors 129 Authentication Secrets Store 129 Cryptography 130 Technology 130 Transmission/Network Channel 131 Namespace 131 Supporting Infrastructure 131 Relying Party 132 Federation/Proxies 132 Alternate Authentication Methods/Recovery 132 Migrations 133 Deprovision 133 MFA Component Conclusion 134 Main Hacking Methods 134 Technical Attacks 134 Human Element 135 Physical 137 Two or More Hacking Methods Used 137 "You Didn't Hack the MFA!" 137 How MFA Vulnerabilities are Found 138 Threat Modeling 138 Code Review 138 Fuzz Testing 138 Penetration Testing 139 Vulnerability Scanning 139 Human Testing 139 Accidents 140 Summary 140 6 Access Control Token Tricks 141 Access Token Basics 141 Access Control Token General Hacks142 Token Reproduction/Guessing 142 Token Theft 145 Reproducing Token Hack Examples 146 Network Session Hijacking Techniques and Examples 149 Firesheep 149 MitM Attacks 150 Access Control Token Attack Defenses 157 Generate Random, Unguessable Session IDs 157 Use Industry-Accepted Cryptography and Key Sizes 158 Developers Should Follow Secure Coding Practices 159 Use Secure Transmission Channels 159 Include Timeout Protections 159 Tie the Token to Specifi c Devices or Sites 159 Summary 161 7 Endpoint Attacks 163 Endpoint Attack Risks 163 General Endpoint Attacks 165 Programming Attacks 165 Physical Access Attacks 165 What Can an Endpoint Attacker Do? 166 Specifi c Endpoint Attack Examples 169 Bancos Trojans 169 Transaction Attacks 171 Mobile Attacks 172 Compromised MFA Keys 173 Endpoint Attack Defenses 174 MFA Developer Defenses 174 End-User Defenses 177 Summary 179 8 SMS Attacks 181 Introduction to SMS 181 SS7 184 Biggest SMS Weaknesses 186 Example SMS Attacks 187 SIM Swap Attacks 187 SMS Impersonation 191 SMS Buffer Overflow 194 Cell Phone User Account Hijacking 195 Attacks Against the Underlying Supporting Infrastructure 196 Other SMS-Based Attacks 196 SIM/SMS Attack Method Summary 197 NIST Digital Identity Guidelines Warning 198 Defenses to SMS-Based MFA Attacks 199 Developer Defenses 199 User Defenses 201 Is RCS Here to Save Mobile Messaging? 202 Is SMS-Based MFA Still Better than Passwords? 202 Summary 203 9 One-Time Password Attacks 205 Introduction to OTP 205 Seed Value-Based OTPs 208 HMAC-Based OTP 209 Event-Based OTP 211 TOTP 212 Example OTP Attacks 217 Phishing OTP Codes 217 Poor OTP Creation 219 OTP Theft, Re-Creation, and Reuse 219 Stolen Seed Database 220 Defenses to OTP Attacks 222 Developer Defenses 222 Use Reliable and Trusted and Tested OTP Algorithms 223 OTP Setup Code Must Expire 223 OTP Result Code Must Expire 223 Prevent OTP Replay 224 Make Sure Your RNG is NIST-Certified or Quantum 224 Increase Security by Requiring Additional Entry Beyond OTP Code 224 Stop Brute-Forcing Attacks224 Secure Seed Value Database 225 User Defenses 225 Summary 226 10 Subject Hijack Attacks 227 Introduction 227 Example Attacks 228 Active Directory and Smartcards 228 Simulated Demo Environment 231 Subject Hijack Demo Attack 234 The Broader Issue 240 Dynamic Access Control Example 240 ADFS MFA Bypass 241 Defenses to Component Attacks 242 Threat Model Dependency Abuse Scenarios 242 Secure Critical Dependencies 242 Educate About Dependency Abuses 243 Prevent One to Many Mappings 244 Monitor Critical Dependencies 244 Summary 244 11 Fake Authentication Attacks 245 Learning About Fake Authentication Through UAC 245 Example Fake Authentication Attacks 251 Look-Alike Websites 251 Fake Office 365 Logons 252 Using an MFA-Incompatible Service or Protocol 253 Defenses to Fake Authentication Attacks 254 Developer Defenses 254 User Defenses 256 Summary 257 12 Social Engineering Attacks 259 Introduction 259 Social Engineering Commonalities 261 Unauthenticated Communication 261 Nonphysical 262 Usually Involves Well-Known Brands 263 Often Based on Notable Current Events and Interests 264 Uses Stressors 264 Advanced: Pretexting 265 Third-Party Reliances 266 Example Social Engineering Attacks on MFA 266 Fake Bank Alert 267 Crying Babies 267 Hacking Building Access Cards 268 Defenses to Social Engineering Attacks on MFA 270 Developer Defenses to MFA 270 User Defenses to Social Engineering Attacks 271 Summary 273 13 Downgrade/Recovery Attacks 275 Introduction 275 Example Downgrade/Recovery Attacks 276 Alternate Email Address Recovery 276 Abusing Master Codes 280 Guessing Personal-Knowledge Questions 281 Defenses to Downgrade/Recovery Attacks 287 Developer Defenses to Downgrade/Recovery Attacks 287 User Defenses to Downgrade/Recovery Attacks 292 Summary 294 14 Brute-Force Attacks 295 Introduction 295 Birthday Attack Method 296 Brute-Force Attack Methods 297 Example of Brute-Force Attacks 298 OTP Bypass Brute-Force Test 298 Instagram MFA Brute-Force 299 Slack MFA Brute-Force Bypass 299 UAA MFA Brute-Force Bug 300 Grab Android MFA Brute-Force 300 Unlimited Biometric Brute-Forcing 300 Defenses Against Brute-Force Attacks 301 Developer Defenses Against Brute-Force Attacks 301 User Defenses Against Brute-Force Attacks 305 Summary 306 15 Buggy Software 307 Introduction 307 Common Types of Vulnerabilities 308 Vulnerability Outcomes 316 Examples of Vulnerability Attacks 317 Uber MFA Vulnerability 317 Google Authenticator Vulnerability 318 YubiKey Vulnerability 318 Multiple RSA Vulnerabilities 318 SafeNet Vulnerability 319 Login gov 319 ROCA Vulnerability 320 Defenses to Vulnerability Attacks 321 Developer Defenses Against Vulnerability Attacks 321 User Defenses Against Vulnerability Attacks 322 Summary 323 16 Attacks Against Biometrics 325 Introduction 325 Biometrics 326 Common Biometric Authentication Factors 327 How Biometrics Work 337 Problems with Biometric Authentication 339 High False Error Rates 340 Privacy Issues 344 Disease Transmission 345 Example Biometric Attacks 345 Fingerprint Attacks345 Hand Vein Attack 348 Eye Biometric Spoof Attacks 348 Facial Recognition Attacks 349 Defenses Against Biometric Attacks 352 Developer Defenses Against Biometric Attacks 352 User/Admin Defenses Against Biometric Attacks 354 Summary 355 17 Physical Attacks 357 Introduction 357 Types of Physical Attacks 357 Example Physical Attacks 362 Smartcard Side-Channel Attack 362 Electron Microscope Attack 364 Cold-Boot Attacks 365 Snooping On RFID-Enabled Credit Cards 367 EMV Credit Card Tricks 370 Defenses Against Physical Attacks 370 Developer Defenses Against Physical Attacks 371 User Defenses Against Physical Attacks 372 Summary 375 18 DNS Hijacking 377 Introduction 377 DNS 378 DNS Record Types 382 Common DNS Hacks 382 Example Namespace Hijacking Attacks 388 DNS Hijacking Attacks 388 MX Record Hijacks 388 Dangling CDN Hijack 389 Registrar Takeover 390 DNS Character Set Tricks 390 ASN 1 Tricks 392 BGP Hijacks 392 Defenses Against Namespace Hijacking Attacks 393 Developer Defenses 394 User Defenses 395 Summary 397 19 API Abuses 399 Introduction 399 Common Authentication Standards and Protocols Involving APIs 402 Other Common API Standards and Components 411 Examples of API Abuse 414 Compromised API Keys 414 Bypassing PayPal 2FA Using an API 415 AuthO MFA Bypass 416 Authy API Format Injection 417 Duo API As-Designed MFA Bypass 417 Microsoft OAuth Attack 419 Sign In with Apple MFA Bypass 419 Token TOTP BLOB Future Attack 420 Defenses Against API Abuses 420 Developer Defenses Against API Abuses 420 User Defenses Against API Abuses 422 Summary 423 20 Miscellaneous MFA Hacks 425 Amazon Mystery Device MFA Bypass 425 Obtaining Old Phone Numbers 426 Auto-Logon MFA Bypass 427 Password Reset MFA Bypass 427 Hidden Cameras 427 Keyboard Acoustic Eavesdropping 428 Password Hints 428 HP MFA DoS 429 Trojan TOTP 429 Hackers Turn MFA to Defeat You 430 Summary 430 21 Test: Can You Spot the Vulnerabilities? 431 Threat Modeling MFA Solutions 431 Document and Diagram the Components 432 Brainstorm Potential Attacks 432 Estimate Risk and Potential Losses 434 Create and Test Mitigations 436 Do Security Reviews 436 Introducing the Bloomberg MFA Device 436 Bloomberg, L P and the Bloomberg Terminal 437 New User B-Unit Registration and Use 438 Threat-Modeling the Bloomberg MFA Device 439 Threat-Modeling the B-Unit in a General Example 440 Specific Possible Attacks 441 Multi-Factor Authentication Security Assessment Tool 450 Summary 451 Part III Looking Forward 453 22 Designing a Secure Solution 455 Introduction 455 Exercise: Secure Remote Online Electronic Voting 457 Use Case Scenario 457 Threat Modeling 458 SDL Design 460 Physical Design and Defenses 461 Cryptography 462 Provisioning/Registration 463 Authentication and Operations 464 Verifiable/Auditable Vote 466 Communications 467 Backend Blockchain Ledger 467 Migration and Deprovisioning 470 API 470 Operational Training 470 Security Awareness Training 470 Miscellaneous 471 Summary 471 23 Selecting the Right MFA Solution 473 Introduction 473 The Process for Selecting the Right MFA Solution 476 Create a Project Team 477 Create a Project Plan 478 Educate 479 Determine What Needs to Be Protected 479 Choose Required and Desired Features 480 Research/Select Vendor Solutions 488 Conduct a Pilot Project 490 Select a Winner 491 Deploy to Production 491 Summary 491 24 The Future of Authentication 493 Cyber Crime is Here to Stay 493 Future Attacks 494 Increasing Sophisticated Automation 495 Increased Nation-State Attacks 496 Cloud-Based Threats 497 Automated Attacks Against MFA 497 What is Likely Staying 498 Passwords 498 Proactive Alerts 498 Preregistration of Sites and Devices 499 Phones as MFA Devices 500 Wireless 501 Changing/Morphing Standards 501 The Future 501 Zero Trust 502 Continuous, Adaptive, Risk-Based 503 Quantum-Resistant Cryptography 506 Interesting Newer Authentication Ideas 506 Summary 507 25 Takeaway Lessons 509 Broader Lessons 509 MFA Works 509 MFA is Not Unhackable 510 Education is Key 510 Security Isn't Everything 511 Every MFA Solution Has Trade-Offs 511 Authentication Does Not Exist in a Vacuum 512 There is No Single Best MFA Solution for Everyone 515 There are Better MFA Solutions 515 MFA Defensive Recap 516 Developer Defense Summary 516 User Defense Summary 518 Appendix: List of MFA Vendors 521 Index 527

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